Sonoma County Office of Education

English Learner Services

Long-Term English Learners


Meeting the Unique Needs of Long Term English Language Learners (pdf)
By Laurie Olsen, Ph.D. | Published by the National Education Association
Written for educators, administrators, and policymakers, this booklet provides a research-based overview on the large number of Long Term English Language Learner students, who despite having been enrolled in United States schools for more than six years, are not progressing towards English proficiency but are continuing to struggle without the English skills needed for academic success.


Reparable Harm (pdf)
This report by Dr. Laurie Olsen describes the results of a 40-district survey on “long-term English learners” (LTELs) in California. The report calls on state policymakers and leaders to provide solutions and outlines basic principles and promising approaches for school districts to meet the needs of English Learners more effectively.


In the Starlight: LTELs (pdf)
Prepared by the Santa Clara County Office of Education, this brief provides a synopsis and key highlights from Dr. Laurie Olsen’s study of long-term English learners, Reparable Harm.


California Assembly Bill 2193
Approved in September 2012, AB 2193 defines “long-term English learner” and “English learner at risk of becoming a long-term English learner” and requires the State Department of Education to annually report on the number of pupils in each school district and school who are, or are at risk of becoming, long-term English learners.